Comparative Review of Peptide Groups

Anti-Obesity Peptides
Peptide Mechanism of action Additional benefits Possible Side Effects References
AOD 9604 Stimulates pituitary gland to speed up metabolism and burn excess fat
  • No impact on lean muscle mass
  • No impact on food intake
  • Regenerative properties
  • Euphoria
  • Chest tightness
  • Hypersomnia
Mark Heffernan et al, Endocrinology, Volume 142, Issue 12, 1 December 2001, https://doi.org/10.1210/endo.142.12.8522

Frank M. Ng, J Sun et.al, Hormone Research, February 2000, https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/?term=AOD%209604

Adipotide (FTPP) Causes disruption of adipocytes (fat forming cells)
  • Improved insulin resistance
  • Renal dysfunction
  • Discontinuation may cause obesity reversal
Barnhart, Kirstin F et al. Science translational medicine vol. 3,108 (2011): 108ra112. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/22072637/  

Kolonin, Mikhail G et al. Nature medicine vol. 10,6 (2004): 625-32. doi:10.1038/nm1048. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/15133506/

Tesamorelin Activates GHRH receptors in pituitary gland leading to increased GH and IGF-1 
  • Burning, tingling
  • pain in all fingers
  • Arrhythmia
  • Blurred vision
https://www.mayoclinic.org/drugs-supplements/tesamorelin-subcutaneous-route/description/drg-20074632

 

Growth Hormone Peptides
Peptide Mechanism of action Additional benefits Possible Side Effects References
Ipamorelin Triggers pituitary gland to secrete more growth hormones
  • Anti-aging properties
  •  Collagen production
  • Improves sleep cycle
  • Increased food intake
  • Increased body weight
David E. Beck et al., International Journal of Colorectal Disease, 2014, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00384-014-2030-8

P.B Johansen et al, April 1999, https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/10373343/

Gobburu, J.V.S., Agersø, H., Jusko, W.J. et al. Pharm Res 16, 1412–1416 (1999) https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1018955126402

Rogério G. Gondo et al, The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, Volume 86, Issue 7, 1 July 2001, Pages 3279–3283, https://doi.org/10.1210/jcem.86.7.7694

Sermorelin Triggers pituitary gland to secrete more growth hormones
  • Anti-aging properties
  • Increased energy
  • Improved lean muscle mass
  • Difficulty in sitting still (rare)
Koutkia, Polyxeni et al. JAMA vol. 292,2 (2004): 210-8 https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/15249570/

Vitiello, Michael V et al. Neurobiology of aging vol. 27,2 (2006): 318-23. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/16399214/

Fragment 176-191 Triggers pituitary gland to secrete more growth hormones
  • Increased metabolism rate
  • Reduced insulin sensitivity
  • Tissue repair
  • Palpitations, chest tightness
G.Y.W. Ma et al, Volume 716, Issue 3, 1982, Pages 400-409, ISSN 0304-4165 https://doi.org/10.1016/0304-4165(82)90033-2

 Zhou, Deng-Rong et al. Medicine vol. 100, 5 (2021): e23984. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7870157/

Clinical info drug database. https://clinicalinfo.hiv.gov/en/drugs/somatropin/patient

GHRP-2 Triggers pituitary gland, cAMP pathway and calcium channels
  • Improved joint health
  • Improved sleep
  • Increased strength 
  • Increased appetite
  • Hot flushes
Laferrère, Blandine et al. (2005): 611-4. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2824650/

Furuta S, Shimada O, Doi N, Ukai K, Nakagawa T, Watanabe J, 2004;54(12):868-80. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/15646371/

Emanuela Arvat, et al, Peptides, Volume 18, Issue 6, 1997, Pages 885-891, ISSN 0196-9781, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0196-9781(97)00016-8  

Hexarelin Triggers pituitary gland to secrete more growth hormones
  • Decrease weight
  • Wound repair 
  • Increased sleep
Bellone J et al, https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/9801989/

Giustina A, et al, Regul Pept. 1997 May 14;70(1):49-54. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/9250581/

 Rahim A, et al, Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 1998 Nov;49(5):659-64. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/10197083/  

GHRP-6 Binds with GHS-R1a and CD36 receptors & stimulates GH release and reduce cellular death
  • Treat hypothyroidism
  • Increased energy
  • Edema
Pimentel-Filho FR, et al, 1997 Mar;46(3):295-300. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/9156038/

Frieboes RM, et al, . Neuroendocrinology. 1995 May;61(5):584-9. https://doi.org/10.1159/000126883  

Cibrián D, et al, Clin Sci (Lond). 2006 May;110(5):563-73. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/16417467/

CJC 1295 No DAC Binds with albumin and promotes growth hormone secretion
  • Reduce body weight
  • Increased insulin sensitivity
Valcavi R, et al, Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 1986 Jun;24(6):693-8. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/3098458/

Ito T, Igarashi H, et al. Peptides. 2001 Jul;22(7):1139-51. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/11445245/

Teichman SL, et al, J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2006 Mar;91(3):799-805. doi: 10.1210/jc.2005-1536. Epub 2005 Dec 13. PMID: 16352683. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/16352683/

IGF-1 LR3 Binds with IGF-1 receptors
  • Decreased body fat
  • Increased metabolism
  • Increased bone density
  • Seizures
  • Jaw pain
  • Hypoglycemia
Anderson, et al. Molecular and cellular endocrinology, 464, 65–74. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5723243/

Naisi Li et al, Volume 157, Issue 1, 1 January 2016, Pages 282–291. https://doi.org/10.1210/en.2015-1546

William E. Sonntag, et al, The Journals of Gerontology: Series A, Volume 67A, Issue 6, June 2012, Pages 587–598, https://doi.org/10.1093/gerona/gls115

PEG MGF Promotes cell proliferation and growth
  • Neuroprotective
  • Cardioprotective
  • Tissue repair
  • More potent than MGF
  • Hypoglycemia
  • Low blood pressure
Doroudian G et al, Biomed Microdevices. 2014 Oct;16(5):705-15. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/24908137/

Deng M, et al, Int Orthop. 2011 Jul;35(7):1099-106. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/21057789/

Alec Walker.  20 Jul 2017. https://blogs.biomedcentral.com/on-biology/2017/07/20/hearts-minds-mice-men-mechano-growth-factor-new-tool-battle-age-related-neuron-loss/

MGF Promotes cell proliferation and growth
  • Neuroprotective
  • Cardioprotective
  • Tissue repair
  • Low blood pressure
Kandalla PK, et al. Mech Ageing Dev. 2011 Apr. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/21354439/

 Liu X, et al,  Front Physiol. 2019 May 17;10:601. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31164836/

Dluzniewska J, et al, FASEB J. 2005 Nov;19(13):1896-8. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/16144956/

IGF-1 DES Stimulates excitatory synaptic transmission and cell growth
  • Combat autism
  • Memory booster
  • Hypoglycemia
Anderson, Lindsey J et al. Molecular and cellular endocrinology vol. 464 (2018): 65-74. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5723243/

Autism Spectrum Disorder. https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/autism-spectrum-disorder/symptoms-causes/syc-20352928

Ramsey MM, et al. 2005 Jul;94(1):247-54. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/15985695/

 

Wounds Repair Peptides
Peptide Mechanism of action Additional benefits Possible Side Effects References
TB-500 Increase production of actin protein
  • Elevates hair growth
Gao, Xy.,et al,  Mol Genet Genomics 291, 1639–1646 (2016). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00438-016-1207-y
BPC-157 Binds with growth hormone receptors and stimulates cell proliferation
  • Improved gut health
  • Induces tendon, bone, ligament healing
  • Appetite changes
  • Changes in bowel habits
Chang, Chung-Hsun et al. Journal of applied physiology vol. 110,3 (2011): 774-80. doi:10.1152/japplphysiol.00945.2010. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/21030672/

Seiwerth, Sven et al. Current pharmaceutical design vol. 24,18 (2018): 1972-1989. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29998800/

Inflammo-pharmacology vol. 7,1 (1999): 1-14. doi:10.1007/s10787-999-0022-z. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/17657443/

GHK-Cu Affects gene expression and resets human genome 
  • Anti- aging 
  • Elevates hair growth
  • Pain relief and anti-anxiety
Pickart, et al,  International journal of molecular sciences vol. 19,7 1987. 7 Jul. 2018,  https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6073405/

Bobyntsev II, et al, Bull Exp Biol Med. 2015 Apr;158(6):726-8. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/25900608/  

Sever’yanova LА, Bull Exp Biol Med. 2017 Dec;164(2):140-143. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29181666/  

ARA-290 Inhibits TRPV1 channel thereby preventing feeling of pain
  • Tissue protectant
  • Maintain overall health of blood vessels
  • Diarrhea
Watanabe M, et al, Mar;100(3):554-62. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26683514/

Peng, B., Kong, G., Yang, C. et al. Cell Death Dis 11, 79 https://doi.org/10.1038/s41419-020-2276-8

Dahan, A., et al, Molecular medicine (Cambridge, Mass.), 19(1), 334–345. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3883966/

 

Skin Tanning Peptides
Peptide Mechanism of action Additional benefits Possible Side Effects References
Melanotan I Binds with melanocortin receptors & induce tanning
  • Erythropoietic protoporphyria
  • Skin irritation
Drug Trials  https://www.fda.gov/drugs/drug-approvals-and-databases/drug-trials-snapshots-scenesse  
Melanotan II Binds with five melanocortin receptors & induce tanning
  • Erectile dysfunction treatment
  • Renal infarction
  • Systemic toxicity 
Melanotan, Vitamin and Supplements. https://www.webmd.com/vitamins/ai/ingredientmono-884/melanotan

Wessells, H et al. International journal of impotence research vol. 12 Suppl 4 (2000): S74-9. doi:10.1038/sj.ijir.3900582. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/11035391/

Peters B, et al. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31953620/

Melanotan II overdose associated with priapism. Clinical Toxicology 51:4, pages 383-383. https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.3109/15563650.2012.740637

 

Anti-aging Peptides
Peptide Mechanism of action Additional benefits Possible Side Effects References
Epitalon Decreases MM-9 synthesis, increases cell proliferation
  • Increases melatonin production (tanning)
  • Geroprotective properties
Korkushko OV, et al. Normalizing effect of the pineal gland peptides on the daily melatonin rhythm in old monkeys and elderly people. Adv Gerontol. 2007;20(1):74-85. Russian

Khavinson VKh, Morozov VG. Adv Gerontol. 2002;10:74-84. Russian. PMID: 12577695. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/12577695/

FOXO4-DRI Prevents binding of tissue cell with p53 protein which prevents cell aging and death
  • Prevents heart damage
  • Joint pain
Anne-Laure Bulteau, et al, Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Volume 397, Issue 2, 2002, Pages 298-304, https://doi.org/10.1006/abbi.2001.2663

Wei Hu,et al Progress in Neurobiology, Volume 181, 2019, 101645, ISSN 0301-0082, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pneurobio.2019.101645

NAD+ Act as coenzymes with SIRTs and stimulate stem cell regeneration that prevents aging 
  • Decrease stress
  • Promotes healthy sleep
  • Increased metabolism
  • Liver injury
  • Thrombocytopenia
Wang S, et al, Stroke. 2008 Sep;39(9):2587-95. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/18617666/

Mehmel, Mario et al. Nutrients vol. 12,6 1616. 31 May. 2020, doi:10.3390/nu12061616 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7352172/

 

Peptides affecting Reproductive System
Peptide Mechanism of action Additional benefits Possible Side Effects References
Peptides specific for women
Bremelanotide Binds with MC3R and MC4R receptors & stimulate central nervous system 
  • Not meant for men
  • Not meant for postmenopausal women
Drugs and Supplements, Bremelanotide (subcutaneous route). https://www.mayoclinic.org/drugs-supplements/bremelanotide-subcutaneous-route/description/drg-20466805

Pfaus J, et al, J Sex Med. 2007 Nov;4 Suppl 4:269-79. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/17958619/

Oxytocin Binds with GCPR, induces calcium secretion and thereby uterine contractions 
  • Promotes breastfeeding
  • Antidiuretic
  • Vasodilation
  • Seizures
  • Hallucinations
  • Blurred vision
Osilla EV, Sharma S. Oxytocin. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK507848/

 Gomes M, J Obstet Gynaecol. 2018 Aug;38(6):745-749. Epub 2018 Mar 9. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29523035/

Rabow, S., Hjorth, U., Schönbeck, S. et al. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth 18, 453 (2018).  https://bmcpregnancychildbirth.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12884-018-2029-1

GnRH releasing Peptides (fertility boosters)
Kisspeptin Binds with GPR54 receptors and stimulate GnRH release
  • Treat subfertility
  • Treat delayed onset of puberty
  • Treat contraception
  • Increased body weight and glucose regulation, especially in women
Prague JK, et al, Neuroendocrinology. 2015;102(3):238-45. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26277870/  

Tng E. L. (2015). Singapore medical journal, 56(12), 649–656. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4678402/

 d’Anglemont de Tassigny X, et al, Mechanistic insights into the more potent effect of KP-54 compared to KP-10 in vivo. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28464043/

Triptorelin Binds to receptors in pituitary gland which stimulates release of LH and FSH
  • Treat prostate cancer
  • Anti-fertility
  • Treat precocious puberty
  • Mood swings
  • Breast size modifications
  • Diabetes, osteoporosis, metabolic changes 
https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/prostate-cancer/symptoms-causes/syc-20353087

Endometriosis Health Center. https://www.webmd.com/women/endometriosis/default.htm

Klein K, et al. Pediatr Endocrinol Metab. 2016 Nov 1;29(11):1241-1248. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26887034/

LiverTox: Clinical and Research National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases; 2012-. Triptorelin. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK548756/

Gonadorelin Binds to receptors in pituitary gland which stimulates release of LH and FSH
  • Treat prostate cancer
  • Induce ovulation
  • Treat breast cancer
https://www.mayoclinic.org/drugs-supplements/gonadorelin-intravenous-route-injection-route/description/drg-20067426

Spicer DV, Pike MC.  J Natl Cancer Inst Monogr. 1994;(16):139-47. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/7999456/

Zerbib M. GnRH analogs and prostate cancer treatment. Ann Urol (Paris). 2005 Oct;39 Suppl 3:S66-72. French. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/16302714/  

 

Immunity Booster Peptides 
Peptide Mechanism of action Additional benefits Possible Side Effects References
Thymosin Alpha-1 Induce T-cell differentiation and macrophage production
  • Treatment for melanoma and hepatitis
  • Influenza vaccine co-adjuvant
  • Potential HIV treatment
  • Difficulty in breathing
  • Swelling of face, throat, tongue
Dominari A, et al. Thymosin alpha 1: A comprehensive review of the literature. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7747025/

Chadwick D, et al. Clin Exp Immunol. 2003 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1808897/

Zadaxin (Thymalfasin): Uses, Dosage, Side Effects, Interactions, Warning [Internet]. RxList. 2009. Available from: https://www.rxlist.com/zadaxin-drug.htm#description

Thymalin Induce T-cell differentiation and macrophage production
  • Treatment for COPD (respiratory disorder)
  • Treatment for goiter
  • Anti-aging
Anisimov VN, et al, Biogerontology. 2000;1(1):55-9. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/11707921/

Iangolenko VV. Ter Arkh. 1991;63(10):60-3. Russian. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/1725225/

Thymus extract, side effects. https://www.webmd.com/vitamins/ai/ingredientmono-1009/thymus-extract

LL-37 Executes antimicrobial properties 
  • Angiogenesis (wound repair)
Ramos R, et al. Peptides. 2011 Jul;32(7):1469-76. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/21693141/

Follistatin-344 Binds with activin and attenuates its effect by inhibiting FSH secretion
  • Induce hair growth
  • Inhibits congenital blindness
  • Combat insulin deficiency
Ooe H, et al. J Cell Physiol. 2012 Jun;227(6):2363-70https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/21826650/

Zimber MP, et al,  J Drugs Dermatol. 2011 Nov; 10(11):1308-12 https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/22052313/

Van der Poel HG, et al, Urol Res. 2003 Feb;30(6):380-6. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/12599018/

Humanin Binds with Bax protein and prevents cell death
  • Anti-obesity
  • Increased longevity
  • Colon protection
Changhan Lee et al, Published 18 July 2014, Vol 13 Issue 5. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/acel.12243

Zhenwei Gong et al, https://journals.physiology.org/doi/full/10.1152/ajpendo.00043.2015

Emma Eriksson, JNCI: Journal of the National Cancer Institute, Volume 106, Issue 3, March 2014, djt459, https://doi.org/10.1093/jnci/djt459

 

Nootropic Peptides (Memory boosters)
Peptide Mechanism of action Additional benefits Possible Side Effects References
Semax Inhibition of selected enzymes and modulate gene expression
  • Neuroprotective properties
  • Protect cardiovascular system
  • Decrease stress, pain
Nataliya Yu. et al, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.npep.2020.102114

Volodina MA et al, Bull Exp Biol Med. 2012 Mar;152(5):560-3. English, Russian. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/22803132/

PMID: 11517472. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/11517472/

Selank Stimulate GABAergic system and genome expression
  • Immunity booster
  • Reduce weight
  • Reduce stress, anxiety
Medvedev VE, et al, 2014;114(7):17-22. Russian. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/25176261/

Uchakina ON, et al, Zh Nevrol Psikhiatr Im S S Korsakova. 2008;108(5):71-5. Russian. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/18577961/

N.F. Mjasoedov et al, The Influence of Selank on the Parameters of the Hemostasis System, Lipid Profile, and Blood Sugar Level in the Course of Experimental Metabolic Syndrome. April 14, 2014. https://link.springer.com/epdf/10.1134/

 

Peptides Affecting Nervous/Muscle Systems
Peptide Mechanism of action Additional benefits Possible Side Effects References
Pinealon MAPK/ERK signaling pathway
  • Anti-aging 
Meshchaninov VN, et al,. Adv Gerontol. 2015;28(1):62-7. Russian. PMID: 26390612. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26390612/
Thyrotropin Binds with TRH-1 and TRH-2 receptors and modifies gene expression
  • Diagnostic tool to determine impairment in pituitary and hypothalamus gland 
  • Increased blood pressure
Sternbach HA, et al, JAMA. 1983 Mar 25. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/6402617/

Borowski GD, et al,  J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1984 Jan;58(1):197-200https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/6417153/

ACE-031 Binds with myostatin and promotes muscle production
  • Increased metabolism
  • Bleeding of gums and nose
Morvan F, et al, Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2017 Nov 21;114(47):12448-12453. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29109273/

Relizani K, et al, Mol Ther. 2014 Aug;22(8):1423-1433. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/24861054/

Béchir N, et al, FASEB J. 2016 Oct;30(10):3551-3562. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/27416839/

 

Multifunctional Peptide
Peptide Mechanism of action Additional benefits Possible Side Effects References
VIP Binds with various receptors on the body organs and executes multiple biological effects
  • Treat cardiac disorders
  • Increased metabolism
  • Regulate vaginal lubrication
  • Low blood pressure
  • Agitation
  • Irritability 
Gonzalez-Rey E, et al 2005 Nov;6(11):1116-23. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/16312132/

Kingsbury MA et al, 2015 Dec 1;6:139-147. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26858968/