Obesity and AOD 9604 peptide
Researchers have been exploring numerous novel drugs and alternatives to fight this problem, and peptides like AOD 9604 can aid fight the abundant body fat and help maintain the ideal adult Body Mass index (BMI) in the 18.5 – 24.9 range.
With over 50% of adults in developed countries being overweight, obesity has become one of the major health concerns worldwide. And yet, there are a disappointingly scarce number of effective medicines today that can combat the problem.
Why has obesity become such a recurrent issue globally, you may ask?
Today’s increasingly sedentary lifestyle has made it extremely difficult to strike a complete balance between calories consumed and calories burned. In addition to this, as people age, a variety of natural hormones and peptides levels begin to decline, leading to issues such as weight gain and decreased energy level.
What is AOD 9604 peptide?
Just as the name suggests, the Anti-Obesity Drug (AOD) 9604 peptide is a fat fighting medication, a synthetic analog of a human hormone to treat obesity and aid people trying to lose weight.
Why would one use a synthetic analog of the otherwise naturally occurring human hormone?
There is a small portion of the naturally occurring growth hormone in the human body which stimulates fat metabolism and thereby burns the excess body fat. However, this small portion is suppressed in obese people. That is where AOD 9604 comes in to help.
Anti-Obesity Drug (AOD) 9604 peptide is a modified human growth hormone where the last 15 amino acids (177-191) have been reproduced as a specific peptide, called GH Frag 177-191 or simply put, AOD 9604. It consists of the amino acids 177-191 in addition to a tyrosine residue to the C-terminus(1).
AOD 9604 is a one-of-a-kind medication which treats obesity by inducing faster metabolism rate, rather than artificially reducing appetite and food absorption, unlike other anti-obesity drugs.
History of AOD 9604
In the 1990s, the researcher Professor Frank Ng of Monash University in Australia discovered the AOD 9604 peptide while making an effort to develop medications which have anti-obesity properties similar to the Human growth hormone (hGH) but with no side effects. In 2003, Anti-Obesity Drug (AOD) 9604 peptide became a patented drug of the Metabolic Pharmaceuticals Limited in Australia.
Rigorous scientific studies and experiments have since been conducted to determine the effects of AOD 9604 in increasing metabolism rate, loss of fat, lipolysis (breaking down of human fat), and high plasma glycerol, which have been discussed in detail later in this article.
How Does It Work?
AOD 9604 is the synthetic fragment of Human growth hormone (hGH) which stimulates the pituitary gland to speed up the metabolism rate and help lose weight within a short frame of time. AOD 9604 peptide induces lipolysis and anti-lipogenesis (inhibition of fat generation) via oxidation mechanism, which can be independent of hGH receptor (1).
This peptide induces weight loss with no impact to food intake or appetite and no adverse impact to insulin sensitivity. Multiple studies have discovered that AOD 9604 triggers fat release from the obese cells and works on reducing the new fat build up and stores in body.
The benefits of this peptide are:
- Decreases body fat and can help reduce abdominal fat.
- Triggers fat burn out from obese fat cells.
- Imitate the mechanism of the natural growth hormone in regulating fat metabolism.
- Induces lipolysis and prevents lipogenesis.
- No impact to lean muscle mass.
- Does not induce higher food intake (no impact to appetite).
- Does not induce changes to the insulin sensitivity or IGF-1 levels.
- Consists of regenerative and cartilage repair properties, similar to the natural growth hormone.
Several scientists and researchers have discovered that the modified portion of the hGH in the AOD-9604 peptide is responsible for strongly inducing the fat burning process, while simultaneously also not stimulating the production of Insulin-like Growth Factor IGF 1, different than the natural human growth hormone.
Additionally, high levels of IGF 1 can cause damage to joints, heart, and liver, in addition to impacting the blood glucose levels.
With AOD 9604 not promoting synthesis of IGF 1, all these potential harmful effects pertaining to IGF 1 can be avoided – which is why AOD-9604 can potentially help in certain diseases such as osteoarthritis, osteoporosis, hypercholesterolemia, worn cartilage and bone damage.
No changes to insulin sensitivity have proven to be a key advantage of Anti-Obesity Drug (AOD) 9604, which is highly unlikely with other anti-obesity medications.
Research and Clinical Studies
Experiments with chronic and acute use of AOD 9604 – via intraperitoneal route:
Early clinical studies were carried out on obese mice where AOD-9604 peptide was chronically administered via intraperitoneal route for 14 days. Post experiment, the results showed reduction in body weight and excess fat. These results were directly correlated with the increased levels of major lipolytic receptors called ß3-AR cells found in the fat cells. AOD 9604 peptide has shown effects similar to hGH where both are capable to increase the repressed levels of lipolytic receptors in obese mice as compared to the lean mice.
To confirm whether the lipolytic effects of AOD 9604 were merely associated with the increased lipolytic receptor levels, additional studies were carried out where AOD 9604 was injected into mice with knocked out lipolytic receptors. Interestingly, AOD 9604 proved to be effective in this case as well. Further analysis showed that AOD 9604 peptide demonstrated the lipolytic effects via increased energy expenditure and fat oxidation. Thus, it was concluded that AOD 9604 was effective in fat reduction irrespective of the receptors, though these studies have shown AOD 9604 peptides to increase the lipolytic receptor expression (1).
Both these findings on chronic and acute use of AOD 9604 illustrated that while enhanced ß3-AR expression played a vital role in the chronic effectiveness of the compound, ß3-AR was not the sole arbiter in this reaction. Oxidation and enhanced energy expenditure were vital in acute effectiveness of the peptide(1).
Animal Studies Related to Oral Administration of AOD 9604
In 2000, a research study was carried out in obese Zucker rats where the AOD 9604 peptide was administered daily via an oral dose of 500 microg/kg body weight for 19 consecutive days. Post treatment, it was demonstrated that the body weight was reduced in all rats by over 50% in comparison to the rats treated with placebo. Further analysis showed that the adipose tissues of the AOD 9604 peptide treated animals had increased lipolytic activity and there was no adverse impact on the insulin sensitivity of the animals.
This study illustrated the potential of the peptide to be developed in an oral dosage with proven therapeutic effect (2).
Clinical Trials on Obese Patients
In 2004, Metabolic Pharmaceuticals Limited conducted clinical trials where 300 obese patients were given the peptide orally for a 12-week period. Five doses were used – 1mg, 5mg, 10mg, 20mg and 30mg, along with a placebo. Out of all, the group administered with 1mg dose showed the best results, with an average weight loss of 2.8 kilograms over the 12 week period. The rate of weight loss remained consistent throughout the treatment period, which was a huge breakthrough. Also, the trial results demonstrated minor improvement in the patients’ cholesterol profiles and in impaired glucose tolerance levels. This proved to be an encouraging trend with the potential of long-term dosing in maintaining obesity (4).
Research on Regenerative Properties of AOD-9604
Additional research was conducted to study the regenerative effects of the peptide. In 2015, 32 white rabbits were divided into four groups of eight and each group was injected via intra-articular route of administration with a placebo, AOD 9604, hyaluronic acid and combination of both AOD 9604 and hyaluronic acid for a period of 4 to 7 weeks. After treatment, these rabbits were assessed morphologically and histopathologically to determine the degree of cartilage degeneration. It was concluded that rabbits treated with the combination dose of 0.25mg AOD 9604 with 6mg hyaluronic acid showed the least degeneration. Thus, it was proven that AOD 9604 has capabilities of enhanced cartilage regeneration and cartilage repair (3).
Multiple clinical studies in humans have further illustrated that the peptide significantly induces lipolysis and prevents lipogenesis by mimicking the natural hGH that regulates the body fat without the unwanted side effects on blood sugar and insulin levels. Additionally, this peptide has shown proven effects of cell repair and bone and cartilage regeneration.
Are There Any Side Effects of AOD 9604?
Research and clinical studies of the peptide have illustrated impeccable safety, efficacy, and tolerability profile, without any significant or toxic side effects.
However, considering not all people are built with the same profile, there are some potential side effects in sensitive people, as mentioned below:
- For injectables (subcutaneous) reactions such as pain, swelling, and redness at the injection site
- Chest tightness
How Is AOD 9604 Administered?
AOD 9604 peptide is available in both powder form (oral route) and as injectables (subcutaneous route). While both routes of administration have been studied and proven to show desirable results, it is recommended to consult a doctor prior to use to help determine the best dose and administration route as per individual patient profile.
Based on the scientific studies and clinical trials, the optimal dose of AOD-9604 peptide has been identified as 200 to 300 microgram a day.
When Is the Best Time for Intake?
For best results, the recommended time to administer the compound is in the morning 30 minutes prior to any food intake and 30 to 45 minutes after the last meal of the day.
While there is no thumb rule for taking medication on an empty stomach or with food, it is preferred to have on an empty stomach. The reason for this being the medication can easily flow through the bloodstream and the absorption rates will be faster considering there is no food or liquid in the body.
It should be noted that these are only suggested doses and administration times, but one must be mindful of individual medical profile and additional supplements and medications being taken simultaneously with AOD 9604.
How Long Does It Take for the Peptide to Work?
Typically, the effects of the AOD9604 peptide start showing after 12 weeks of consistent use. However, the effects can also be seen early on with regular work out and following a strict calorie deficit diet.
In addition to this, there are other contributing factors which may also affect the duration such as personal health, family history, age and simultaneous use of other medications or supplements. For instance, one may biologically have a higher metabolism rate as compared to others and may see results faster, while the other may be genetically inclined to obesity and may see a slower response to the peptide.
AOD 9604 peptide is a synthetic analog of the hGH which induces faster metabolism rate leading to lipolysis and anti-lipogenesis via oxidation mechanism and increased lipolytic receptor expression. AOD 9604 mimics the natural human growth hormone and shows no major toxic side effects. All research and clinical studies of this peptide have demonstrated a highly safe, effective, and completely non-toxic drug profile; as a result, the peptide has also recently been identified as GRAS – Generally Recognized as Safe – by the qualified panel of experts.
Proven to exhibit other abilities such as regeneration capabilities, Anti-Obesity Drug (AOD) 9604 peptide continues to be rigorously studied to maximize its potential and use in the treatment of diseases such as osteoporosis and hypercholesterolemia.
Should you consider opting for AOD 9604, seek medical advice prior to use. This article captures all the medical pros, cons, and recommendations for the AOD peptide, but nothing beats a tailored medication treatment based on individual medical history and profile.
1. Mark Heffernan, Roger J. Summers, Anne Thorburn, Esra Ogru, Robert Gianello, Woei-Jia Jiang, Frank M. Ng, The Effects of Human GH and Its Lipolytic Fragment (AOD 9604) on Lipid Metabolism Following Chronic Treatment in Obese Mice and β 3-AR Knock-Out Mice, Endocrinology, Volume 142, Issue 12, 1 December 2001, Pages 5182–5189.
2. Frank M. Ng, J Sun et.al, Metabolic Studies of a Synthetic Lipolytic Domain (AOD 9604) of Human Growth Hormone, Hormone Research, February 2000.
3. Dong Rak Kwon and GI Young Park, Effect of Intra-articular Injection of AOD9604 with or without Hyaluronic Acid in Rabbit Osteoarthritis Model, Annals of Clinical and Laboratory Science, Volume 45, July-August 2015.
4. News, Medical and Life Sciences, Obesity drug codenamed AOD 9604 highly successful in trials, 16 December 2004.
Synonyms/Aliases: AOD-9604, Lipotropin, Anti-Obesity Drug 9604, modified Fragment 176 191
NOTE: These products are intended for laboratory research use only. AOD 9604 for sale is not intended for personal use. Please review and adhere to our Terms and Conditions before ordering.