DSIP for sale
Peptides have been lately popular in the medicine field due to their immense health benefits. Most of these peptides are analogous to the naturally occurring proteins and hormones in the body and hence are readily accepted by the body causing minimal side effects.
There are several disorders that adversely affect the levels of endogenous proteins and hormones. Besides this, aging, which is a natural process, also causes a decline in the protein levels. This is when the peptides come in to aid in maintaining the required protein and hormone equilibrium in the body.
What is a DSIP Peptide?
Delta sleep inducing peptide, or simply DSIP, is one such synthetic peptide that regulates several body systems and thereby maintains normal endogenous functions. DSIP not only regulates a healthy sleep cycle, as suggested by the peptide name, but also plays a vital role in regulating various physiological processes.
DSIP is a nine amino acid containing peptide, hence called a nonapeptide, that is endogenously found in neurons, plasma, and peripheral organs (1).
Known to induce delta sleep in mammals, this neuropeptide also affects electrophysiological activity in the body and regulates the neurotransmitter levels in the brain. Furthermore, it also regulates hormonal levels and psychological performance, and also affects the working of various neuropharmacological medicines (1).
When was DSIP Discovered?
DSIP peptide was first characterized and examined during the years 1963 to 1977 and have since been studied by the scientists to date (2). It was first isolated by the Schoenenberger Monnier group in 1977 from the cerebral venous blood of rabbits (3).
Initially regarded to only act as a sleep including factor, DSIP was soon discovered to possess various other benefits and potential uses in therapeutic fields such as in treatment of pain, sleeplessness, and withdrawal (2).
In 1984, a DSIP-like material was also detected in the human breast milk with almost 90% recovery rate. It is known that the naturally found milk proteins are easily absorbed in the gastrointestinal tract of the infants, however, it is not known whether DSIP-like material affects the sleep cycle of the infants (4).
How does DSIP Work?
A study (5) was conducted on rats aged 2 to 24 months to examine the mechanism of DSIP peptide in vivo. These rats were administered with 100 microgram/100g bodyweight of DSIP via subcutaneous injections.
Upon analysis, it was demonstrated that DSIP inhibits the levels of malonic dialdehyde in the rat tissues and plasma. Malonic dialdehyde is a byproduct of lipid peroxidation, and increased levels of malonic dialdehyde induce increased oxidative stress in the body. This result demonstrated that DSIP prevents lipid peroxidation in the rat body, which in turn executes the antioxidant effects of the DSIP peptide.
DSIP also stimulates the endogenous antioxidant system influencing various enzymatic levels in the body. As organisms age, these antioxidant functions of the body decline, hence, upon DSIP administration, these antioxidant levels are elevated, thereby exerting geroprotective effects.
DSIP Neurological Effects on the Brain
A study (6) was carried out on male rats where it was seen that DSIP administration led to the activation of neuronal activity in the brain cortex, hippocampus, and hypothalamus regions.
Upon analysis, it was suggested that the neuronal activity in the brain stimulated by DSIP is mediated via NMDA receptors found in the brain. Studies are still ongoing to determine the mode of action via which DSIP produces their effects on the neurological systems.
In vitro studies (7) have shown that DSIP can easily penetrate through the blood brain barrier in the nervous system and thereby induce many effects in the brain. There is a specific aminopeptidase enzyme that acts on the DSIP peptide, shortening its half life to 15 minutes. Endogenous DSIP has the ability to bind with larger proteins and form a complex, thereby protecting itself from enzymatic lysis and increasing its half-life. However, studies are still ongoing to determine which protein it binds with in order to demonstrate the multivariate effects in the body.
What are the Benefits of Delta Sleep Inducing Peptide
The various benefits and advantages of DSIP include:
- Regulates slow wave sleep (SWS) cycle
- Plays a role in endocrine regulation and hormone release
- Reduces stress
- Maintain blood pressure and heart contraction
- Possess antioxidant effects
- Relieves pain
- Potential anticarcinogenic agent
- Potential use in treatment of epilepsy
- Regulates neuronal activity
- Potential agent to treat withdrawal symptoms
Research and Clinical Studies on DSIP
DSIP Effects on Sleep Cycle In Animals
A study (8) was conducted on cats to examine the effects of DSIP on their sleep pattern.
10 cats were divided into two groups, one was administered with control and the other with a single injection of exogenous DSIP at a dose of 7 nmol/kg body weight. The peptide was injected into the lateral ventricle of the cats and was monitored for 8 hours.
Results demonstrated that there was a significant increase in total sleep and slow wave sleep (SWS) cycle following peptide administration. SWS is the third phase of the sleep cycle which is characterized by deep sleep with no non-rapid eye movement (NREM). The effects of DSIP were immediate as the amount of SWS sleep elevated within the first hour post injection. This increase was maintained for 7 hours, and then decreased in the eighth hour. This result demonstrated there was a direct correlation between DSIP administration and deep, SWS sleep pattern.
Effects on Sleep Cycle In Humans
This study (15) was carried out on 6 healthy volunteers (4 males and 2 females) who were each administered 25nmol/kg body weight of DSIP in the morning via slow intravenous transfusions. All volunteers were under intensive observations throughout the study period.
All volunteers reported feeling increased sleep pressure immediately after administration, with a 59% increased sleep within 2 hours of administration. There was a reduced percentage of stage 1 sleep (i.e. sleep onset) with more stage 3 sleep (i.e. deep sleep), thereby reporting increased sleep efficiency.
Endocrine Regulation of DSIP
In this study (9), rats were injected with 5 micrograms of DSIP via intraventricular route of administration. The main goal of this study was to examine the effects of DSIP on the endocrine system. Within 30 minutes of administration, it was noted that the levels of luteinizing hormone (LH) elevated significantly, whereas there was no impact to the follicle stimulating hormone (FSH).
Studies have also shown that DSIP administration leads to increased secretion of somatotropin hormones, and decreased levels of corticotropin hormones in the body (7).
These results demonstrate that DSIP potentially acts on the hypothalamus to regulate hormonal secretion and can possibly be used to treat and regulate the hormone deficiencies in humans. However, further studies are still ongoing to confirm the safety and efficacy of DSIP to be used in humans.
DSIP Effects on Stress
The goal of this study (10) was to evaluate the effects of DSIP on stress hormones in the body.
This study was carried out on rats who were experimentally induced with stress by tying their tails in a special cage during night time. These stress experiments were conducted for 12 hours for five days.
The rats were divided into 6 groups, where the control group was administered with placebo and the rest were administered with DSIP. The six groups included (i) control group, (ii) stress group, (iii) group administered with DSIP one hour before stress experiments, (iv) administered 24 hours before stress experiments, (v) administered one hour before the last stress experiment and (vi) administered 24 hours before the last stress experiment.
Control group was administered with placebo, whereas the remaining rats were administered with 60 nmol/kg bodyweight of DSIP at predetermined time intervals.
The results of the study were that DSIP administration led to elevated levels of endorphins and corticosterone hormones, which are stress reducing hormones, in the hypothalamus and plasma. The earlier the DSIP peptide was administered, the better were the effects on reducing stress.
This suggested that DSIP triggered a cascade of processes in the system, inducing secretion of hormones and oligopeptides in the brain, which thereby led to better coping of the stress.
Anticarcinogenic Effects of DSIP
A study (11) was conducted on 108 female rats who were equally divided into two groups, one that was administered with saline (control) and the other that was administered with 2.5 micrograms of DSIP, both administered via subcutaneous route.
All the mice were administered with either saline or DSIP right from the age of 3 months until their natural deaths. Doses were administered for 5 consecutive days each month.
The results of the study show that DSIP administration did not influence the food intake, however it decreased the body weight of mice. It decreased the chromosomal aberrations in the bone marrow by 23% and improved the life span by 24% compared to the control group. Moreover, DSIP also led to 2.5-fold decrease of the tumor incidents, mainly in mice suffering from leukemia and mammary gland carcinomas.
This was one of the first studies to demonstrate the geroprotective and anticarcinogenic properties of DSIP administration.
Multivariate Effects of DSIP
Various other research studies are still ongoing to fully understand the scope of this peptide. DSIP, which was at first understood to only possess sleep inducing properties, has shown a broad spectrum of properties and various studies have demonstrated its multivariate effects, including its effect on heart rate, blood pressure, body temperature regulation, and pain threshold modification (12).
In a study (13) conducted on children aged between 3 to 16 years, it was found that neurological impairment, specifically in the bioelectrical activity, induced by chemotherapy was reduced upon the administration of DSIP.
In another study (14), it was seen that when DSIP was administered in patients suffering from opioid and alcohol dependence withdrawal symptoms, it ameliorated the withdrawal symptoms in almost 90% of these patients.
Any Side Effects?
Clinical studies in humans for establishing a long term safety profile of the peptide as well as defining side effects, if any, are still ongoing. Nevertheless, studies conducted till date have demonstrated that the peptide is well tolerated with no adverse psychological and physiological effects reported.
While no side effects have been clinically proven yet, below listed are some commonly known side effects:
- Itchiness and inflammation at the site of administration
- Occasional headaches
- Dizziness, lethargy
- Sleep induction
Delta sleep inducing peptide, DSIP, is a nonapeptide which is found naturally in the body as well as is available in synthetic form.
Initially thought to only possess sleep inducing properties, DSIP has since demonstrated its multivariate functionality and is now proven to execute various physiological effects in the human organs including brain and hypothalamus.
Research so far has shown that DSIP is able to produce many effects in the body via stimulating a cascade of enzymatic effects, via NMDA receptors and due to its ability to easily pass through the blood brain barrier.
Health benefits of DSIP include increased sleep efficiency (potential treatment for insomnia), reduced stress and pain, and modulation of various neurological effects. Moreover, DSIP has also shown positive results in regulating opioid and alcohol withdrawal symptoms in humans.
While overall DSIP has proven to be well tolerated in humans, it still remains an unsolved puzzle as scientists believe DSIP has not yet fully been studied.
1. National Center for Biotechnology Information. “PubChem Compound Summary for CID 3623358, Emideltide;delta Sleep Inducing Peptide” PubChem, https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/3623358
2. Graf MV, Kastin AJ. Delta-sleep-inducing peptide (DSIP): an update. Peptides. 1986 Nov-Dec;7(6):1165-87. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/3550726/
3. Kovalzon VM, Strekalova TV. Delta sleep-inducing peptide (DSIP): a still unresolved riddle. J Neurochem. 2006 Apr;97(2):303-9. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/16539679/
4. Graf MV, Hunter CA, Kastin AJ. Presence of delta-sleep-inducing peptide-like material in human milk. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1984 Jul;59(1):127-32. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/6547144/
5. Bondarenko TI, Maĭboroda EA, Mikhaleva II, Prudchenko IA. [Mechanism of delta-sleep inducing peptide geroprotective activity]. Adv Gerontol. 2011;24(1):80-92. Russian. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/21809625/
6. Sudakov KV, Umriukhin PE, Rayevsky KS. Delta-sleep inducing peptide and neuronal activity after glutamate microiontophoresis: the role of NMDA-receptors. Pathophysiology. 2004 Oct;11(2):81-86. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/15364118/
7. Schoenenberger GA. Characterization, properties and multivariate functions of delta-sleep-inducing peptide (DSIP). Eur Neurol. 1984;23(5):321-45. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/6548966/
8. Susić V, Masirević G, Totić S. The effects of delta-sleep-inducing peptide (DSIP) on wakefulness and sleep patterns in the cat. Brain Res. 1987 Jun 30;414(2):262-70. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/3620931/
9. Iyer KS, McCann SM. Delta sleep inducing peptide (DSIP) stimulates the release of LH but not FSH via a hypothalamic site of action in the rat. Brain Res Bull. 1987 Nov;19(5):535-8. doi: 10.1016/0361-9230(87)90069-4. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/3121137/
10. Sudakov KV, Coghlan JP, Kotov AV, Salieva RM, Polyntsev YuV, Koplik EV. Delta-sleep-inducing peptide sequels in the mechanisms of resistance to emotional stress. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1995 Dec 29;771:240-51. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/8597403/
11. Popovich IG, Voitenkov BO, Anisimov VN, Ivanov VT, Mikhaleva II, Zabezhinski MA, Alimova IN, Baturin DA, Zavarzina NY, Rosenfeld SV, Semenchenko AV, Yashin AI. Effect of delta-sleep inducing peptide-containing preparation Deltaran on biomarkers of aging, life span and spontaneous tumor incidence in female SHR mice. Mech Ageing Dev. 2003 Jun;124(6). https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/12782416/
12. Yehuda S, Carasso RL. DSIP–a tool for investigating the sleep onset mechanism: a review. Int J Neurosci. 1988 Feb;38(3-4):345-53. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/3286557/
13. A.B. Sinyukhin, G.P. Timoshinov, V.A. Kornilov, P.D. Shabanov, P.7.a.006 Delta sleep-inducing peptide analogue corrects the CNS functional state of children treated with antiblastomic therapy, European Neuropsychopharmacology, Volume 19, Supplement 3, 2009, Pages S681-S682, ISSN 0924-977X, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0924-977X(09)71101-0
14. Delta sleep-inducing peptide in opioid detoxification. 1 Apr 2006. https://doi.org/10.1176/ajp.154.5.714b
15. Schneider-Helmert D, Gnirss F, Monnier M, Schenker J, Schoenenberger GA. Acute and delayed effects of DSIP (delta sleep-inducing peptide) on human sleep behavior. Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther Toxicol. 1981 Aug;19(8):341-5. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/6895513/
Synonyms/Aliases: DSIP, Delta-sleep-inducing peptide
NOTE: These products are intended for laboratory research use only. DSIP for sale is a lyophilized peptide and is not intended for personal use. Please review and adhere to our Terms and Conditions before ordering.