MOTS-C 10mg

$99.00

Size: 10mg
Contents: MOTS-C
Form: Lyophilized powder
Purity: >99%
SKU: P-MOTS-C-10mg
Availability: In Stock

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Description

MOTS-C (mitochondrial open-reading-frame of the 12S rRNA-c) peptide is a novel mitochondria-derived peptide. MOTS-C is a short peptide composed of 16 amino acids, expressed in both tissues and plasma, indicating that the peptide has a cell-specific and hormonal role in the body(1). With the ability to work both as a cell-specific compound and as a hormone, this peptide mainly works by stimulating the AMPK pathway. To date, only two mitochondria-derived peptides (MDPs) have been aggressively studied, Humanin and MOTS-C. When metabolic stress occurs in the body, the MOTS-C peptide is believed to translocate to the cellular nuclei and alter the gene expression. MOTS-C peptide is also released in the bloodstream and is known as “mitochondrial hormone” or simply as “mitokine”.(2,3) The peptide has numerous benefits, including obesity management, increased energy levels, enhanced skeletal muscle metabolism, improved heart health, and possible longevity.

MOTS-C Chemical Structure(4)

Molecular Formula: C101H152N28O22S2
Molecular Weight: 2174.64 g/mol
Other Titles: Mitochondrial-derived peptide MOTS-c, Mitochondrial open reading frame of the 12S rRNA-c

MOTS-C Uses and Effects

Animal research models have indicated multiple benefits from MOTS-C peptide therapy, including increased physical performance, regulated cellular and tissue metabolism, and myoblast adaptation.() Research indicates that these results are mainly dependent on age. As per Joseph C Reynolds et al., “Mitochondria are chief metabolic organelles with strong implications in aging that also coordinate broad physiological functions, in part, using peptides that are encoded within their independent genome.”(5) MOTS-C is endogenously expressed via exercise, and MOTS-C enhances physical activity and cellular metabolism.

Enhanced Muscle Metabolism
With increasing age, skeletal muscles tend to gain insulin resistance leading to decreased glucose uptake. Upon MOTS-C peptide administration, skeletal muscles are stimulated with an improved response toward AMPK activation. As a result, there is increased expression of the glucose transporters. These stimulations lead to improved skeletal muscle metabolism and enhanced skeletal muscle functioning and growth.(1)

Obesity Treatment
MOTS-C peptide triggers the AMPK pathway, which promotes using excess lipids and protects the lean body mass. Research has shown that the MOTS-C peptide can leave the mitochondrial site, translocate to cellular nuclei, and alter gene expression. This action, in turn, alters glucose uptake restriction.(6)
The above is supported by a research study in which the experimental mice were given high-fat food, and only half were treated with MOTS-C peptide. Mice treated with the MOTS-C peptide were lean and more energetic than the rest, further indicating that the peptide prevents fat accumulation and induces glucose uptake via the AMPK pathway.

Osteoporosis
MOTS-C peptide regulates the transforming growth factor (TGF) beta and SMAD pathway, which profoundly affects bone health.(7) This peptide stimulates the SMAD pathway in the osteoblast cells, improving bone health and strength. When studied in bone marrow cells, this compound triggers the differentiation of the stem cells, which leads to bone development. These results demonstrate that the MOTS-C peptide can improve bone strength and health and produce new bones, both of which are critical in treating osteoporosis.

Cardiac Health
MOTS-C peptide does not directly influence the cardiac muscles; instead, it affects the endothelial cells that line the blood vessels inside. These endothelial tissues affect blood pressure and clotting. Studies show that when MOTS-C peptide was administered in mice, it improved the functioning of the endothelial tissues, thereby ameliorating the heart’s overall health.(8)

Insulin Sensitivity
MOTS-C peptide is associated with insulin sensitivity, but only in lean research subjects. The compound is more important in monitoring the development of insulin insensitivity rather than maintaining the condition.(10) The peptide should be used to monitor prediabetic lean subjects, and any change in the MOTS-C peptide level should demonstrate an early diagnosis of insulin insensitivity.

Longevity
Research has suggested that the MOTS-C peptide may be associated with enhanced longevity. The peptide typically contains glutamate residue, but when this is replaced by lysine, the new compound shows a functional change in the compound. Scientists so far are aware that the functionality of the glutamate and lysine group is vastly different, but how this specific structural change affects peptide functionality is yet to be understood. Noriyuki Fuku et al. suggest that there is “a biological link between MOTS-C and extended lifespan through the putative endocrine action of this mitokine. Further mechanistic research is needed to determine the functional significance of polymorphism and the potential influence of MOTS-C in the human aging process.?” (9)

References:

  1. Lee C, Kim KH, Cohen P. MOTS-c: A novel mitochondrial-derived peptide regulating muscle and fat metabolism. Free Radic Biol Med. 2016 Nov;100:182-187. doi: 10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2016.05.015. Epub 2016 May 20. PMID: 27216708; PMCID: PMC5116416. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5116416/
  2. Zahra Mohtashami et al, MOTS-c, The Most Recent Mitochondrial Derived Peptide in Human Aging and Age-Related Diseases, International Journal of Molecular Sciences
  3. Lee C, Kim KH, Cohen P. MOTS-c: A novel mitochondrial-derived peptide regulating muscle and fat metabolism. Free Radic Biol Med. 2016 Nov;100:182-187. doi: 10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2016.05.015. Epub 2016 May 20. PMID: 27216708; PMCID: PMC5116416. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/27216708/
  4. Reynolds JC, Lai RW, Woodhead JST, Joly JH, Mitchell CJ, Cameron-Smith D, Lu R, Cohen P, Graham NA, Benayoun BA, Merry TL, Lee C. MOTS-c is an exercise-induced mitochondrial-encoded regulator of age-dependent physical decline and muscle homeostasis. Nat Commun. 2021 Jan 20;12(1):470. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33473109/
  5. Lu H, Wei M, Zhai Y, Li Q, Ye Z, Wang L, Luo W, Chen J, Lu Z. MOTS-c peptide regulates adipose homeostasis to prevent ovariectomy-induced metabolic dysfunction. J Mol Med (Berl). 2019 Apr;97(4):473-485. doi: 10.1007/s00109-018-01738-w. Epub 2019 Feb 6. PMID: 30725119. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30725119/
  6. Kim KH, Son JM, Benayoun BA, Lee C. The Mitochondrial-Encoded Peptide MOTS-c Translocates to the Nucleus to Regulate Nuclear Gene Expression in Response to Metabolic Stress. Cell Metab. 2018 Sep 4;28(3):516-524.e7. doi: 10.1016/j.cmet.2018.06.008. Epub 2018 Jul 5. PMID: 29983246; PMCID: PMC6185997. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6185997/
  7. Hu BT, Chen WZ. MOTS-c improves osteoporosis by promoting osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells via TGF-β/Smad pathway. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. 2018 Nov;22(21):7156-7163. doi: 10.26355/eurrev_201811_16247. PMID: 30468456. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30468456/
  8. Qin Q, Delrio S, Wan J, Jay Widmer R, Cohen P, Lerman LO, Lerman A. Downregulation of circulating MOTS-c levels in patients with coronary endothelial dysfunction. Int J Cardiol. 2018 Mar 1;254:23-27. doi: 10.1016/j.ijcard.2017.12.001. Epub 2017 Dec 6. PMID: 29242099. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29242099/
  9. Noriyuki Fuku el al., The mitochondrial-derived peptide MOTS-c: A player in exceptional longevity?, http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/acel.12389.
  10. Che N, Qiu W, Wang JK, Sun XX, Xu LX, Liu R, Gu L. MOTS-c improves osteoporosis by promoting the synthesis of type I collagen in osteoblasts via TGF-β/SMAD signaling pathway. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. 2019 Apr;23(8):3183-3189. doi: 10.26355/eurrev_201904_17676. PMID: 31081069. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31081069/

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