PEG-MGF for sale
Aging is a natural, continuous process where the body undergoes a natural change, and the rate of bodily functions begins to decline. The normal levels of hormones and proteins also decrease resulting in slower functioning of the body.
During younger age, the phenomenon of muscle mass development and strength occurs at a normal rate. However, as people age, there is a loss of muscle growth, repair, and strength (1).
MGF is a naturally occurring protein that helps to build muscle mass in the body. MGF is found to be both age and exercise dependent (1) and with increased age and increased exercise rate, the levels of MGF fluctuate in the body.
What is MGF
MGF is an acronym for Mechano Growth Factor and belongs to the class of IGF-1 (insulin like growth factor) family (1).
An isoform of IGF-1, MGF is also known as IGF-1Ec and is mainly produced in the liver (2).
IGF-1 gene undergoes transcription and generates the three mRNA isoforms, that’s IGF-1Ea, IGF-1Eb and IGF-1Ec. This fact means that MGF (or IGF-1Ec) is identical to IGF-1 but with a different E domain. Each isoform is synthesized by the body in response to different stimuli and possesses specific functions in different tissues.
What is the Difference Between MGF and PEG MGF?
In few words, PEG MGF, or polyethylene glycol (PEG)ylated MGF, is a synthetic form of MGF.
Pegylation is a phenomenon of connecting the polyethylene glycol (PEG) to another compound and altering its structure. In this case, MGF by itself has a very short half-life, however, once bound with PEG, the half-life is extended to a few days.
Studies have demonstrated that PEG IGF-1 is more effective than recombinant human IGF-1 for muscle regeneration and improving muscle function. The main reason was attributed to the fact that PEG does not easily bind with any other compounds and hence leads to the delayed clearance. In addition to this, the modification to the C terminus of IGF-1 with the addition of PEG increases the peptide efficacy at the tissue levels (3).
MGF Discovery Timelines
Upon research, it was known that there were three IGF-1 precursor proteins formed upon the splicing of the mature IGF-1. Each precursor is composed of 70 amino acids residue from the mature IGF-1, and only differs in the amino acid sequence attached to the COOH terminal, which also determines its function.
During the late 1990s and early 2000s, it was discovered that the levels of one of the three precursors, IGF-1EC (MGF), increased significantly upon muscle injury (4).
Several studies have been carried out thereafter (3) to isolate and synthesize the (PEG)ylated MGF to modify and improve the efficacy and bioavailability of the peptide.
Functioning of MGF
The studies have shown that under muscle stress, especially during exercise, the mature IGF-1 gets spliced as a response towards stress, and hence produces and releases one of the isoforms called IGF-1EC, also known as Mechano growth factor (MGF)(4).
One of the hypotheses is that once the levels of the MGF increases, the amino acid sequence attached to the COOH terminal of MGF gets activated and promotes cell proliferation in muscle stem cells.
Further studies demonstrated that upon administering the PEG MGF, it stimulates the proliferation of C2C12 muscle cells and human myoblasts. Based on these results, it was determined that the exogenously administered MGF peptide is biologically active and inert by nature.
What does PEG MGF Help With?
PEG MGF induces stronger, durable effects of normal MGF that includes below therapeutic advantages:
- Capacity to rebuild muscles
- Potential to grow new muscle cells
- Possesses neuroprotective effects, i.e. protection of nervous system, including brain
- Demonstrates cardioprotective effects
- Promotes tissue repair and wound healing
- Promotes bone injury repair
Research and Clinical Studies With PEG MGF
Below listed research studies were conducted on MGF, and since PEG MGF is similar, in fact the ‘better’ version of MGF, there is reasonable evidence to believe that these studies are also representative of PEG MGF effects.
Effects on Skeletal Muscles
Effects on Muscles In Animals
The main goal of this study (5) was to examine the effects of MGF on muscle repair and wound healing.
Experimental mice that were induced with muscle contusion and muscular macrophage depletion were selected as study subjects. These mice were then administered with MGF directly into the damaged muscles.
Based on comprehensive analyses, it was determined that MGF induced muscular repair in the wounded tissues. MGF administration declined the rate of fibrosis in the contused muscles and reduced the expressions of inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, and stress factors.
These results demonstrate that MGF induces muscle regeneration and potentially decreases wound effects such as inflammation and oxidative stress.
Effects on Muscles In Humans
In this 2009 study (6), the effects of both natural MGF (i.e., IGF-1 isoforms) and synthetic MGF were evaluated on the exercise induced damaged muscle cells.
Ten healthy male volunteers were selected for this study and their muscle biopsy samples were collected before exercise. These volunteers were then subject to excessive exercise and the muscle biopsy samples were again collected 6 hours, 2, 5 and 16 days after exercise.
It was determined that this muscular damage stimulated increased secretion of IGF-1 isoforms, especially IGF-1Ea and IGF-1Eb, both of which are predominant forms of MGF. Similarly, synthetic MGF also promoted proliferative effects to heal muscular damage.
Synthetic MGF had an added benefit as their effects were not inhibited by the IGF-1 receptor antagonist.
These studies demonstrated that both natural IGF-1 isoform, MGF, and synthetic MGF exerted muscular regeneration and repair post injury.
MGF Cardioprotective Effects
The main goal of this study (7) was to evaluate the effects of MGF on cardiac muscles undergoing programmed cell death following hypoxia, which is a condition characterized by limited supply of oxygen.
Rats were experimentally induced with hypoxia with only 1% oxygen supply leading to cellular apoptosis.
A microrod delivery device was fabricated with PEGDMA hydrogel chemical which was loaded with MGF peptide and then administered into the experimental rats. These injectable microrods possessed 30kPa stiffness, same as heart, and were the same size of myocyte cells.
Once administered, these rods induced successful release and delivery of MGF into the body within 2 weeks. It also induced increased migration of human stem cells to the heart which led to inhibition of apoptosis.
These results demonstrated that the 2-week MGF biological activity reduced cellular damage and increased stem cells, thereby potentially helping in cardiac muscle regeneration.
MGF Healing Effects on Bone Injury
The main goal of this study (8) was to evaluate the healing effects of MGF on bone injury.
27 rabbits were experimentally induced with a 5-mm bone defect and were then divided into three groups that were treated with one of the two different doses of MGF namely 28 microg/kg bodyweight and 57 microg/kg bodyweight, or with a placebo for 5 consecutive days.
Post treatment, when the bone tissues were histologically examined, it was seen that the placebo treated tissue was the least healed, whereas the bone tissue treated with the highest MGF dose was the most healed tissue. This outcome suggested that MGF induced bone proliferation effects that promoted bone defect healing.
These results represented the potential use of MGF in the healing of fractures in humans.
MGF Effects on Brain Cells
Several studies (9) were conducted on mice who were experimentally treated in order to increase the levels of MGF in their body and thereby study the effects of increased MGF concentration on their brain cells.
One study included breeding of mice in order to constitutively overproduce MGF in the hippocampus area of the brain. Hippocampus is primarily responsible for regulating the neurogenesis phenomenon in the body. This overproduction of MGF resulted in high concentrations of BrdU, which is a biological marker representative of proliferative actions in the body. This result demonstrated that MGF led to increased cell proliferation and brain development.
Another study was conducted where mice were bred to conditional MGF production at 1, 3 and 12 months old. Behavioral analysis and biological responses were examined after 2 years. These mice also showed elevated levels of BrdU and neurogenesis. It was determined that the enhanced levels of neurogenesis led to improved cognitive functions.
These studies demonstrate that MGF has potency to promote neurogenesis in brain cells and thereby be potentially used to treat cognitive disorders in humans.
PEG MGF Potential Use in Dental Applications
Research studies (10) were carried out on mice to determine the effects of MGF on chondrocytes. Chondrocytes are responsible for regulating cartilage health and deposition. These studies showed that MGF enhanced the migration of chondrocytes from bone cells into the cartilage where chondrocytes then exert their biological effects.
Similar to this, when PEG MGF was administered in human periodontal ligament cell culture (in vitro human studies)(11), it elevated the process of bone differentiation. This was suggestive that MGF promotes improvisation in the repair of ligaments that primarily attach the tooth to the bone.
As a result of this, it is possible the PEG MGF may be used in dental applications as an alternative implant, and potentially even be used to treat and maintain surgically re-implanted teeth.
Side Effects of PEG MGF
While studies are still ongoing for PEG MGF to fully understand their biological effects and any adverse effects in humans, there is reasonable data online to suspect that there may be some potential side effects of PEG MGF, including:
- Decreased blood pressure
- Swelling, redness and itchiness at the site of injection administration
- Headache, dizziness
PEG MGF Use as a Doping Agent
Scientists argue that very little is known about PEG MGF and its effects on humans, however MGF has been widely welcomed in the bodybuilding industry. PEG MGF administration is highly common amongst fitness enthusiasts either as solo administration or in combination with other anabolic compounds. While there are details about peptide administration, it should be noted that these are a mixture of both scientific research and hear-say about self-administration.
Given that it’s currently being misused as a doping agent by some athletes and fitness enthusiasts, PEG MGF has been banned by World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) in sports (2).
Mechano Growth Factor, MGF, is a potent isoform of IGF-1 family, which promotes tissue, bone and muscle recovery post injury.
Polyethylene glycol (PEG)ylated MGF, or simply PEG MGF, is a synthetic version of MGF which is a combination of both PEG chemical and MGF protein. Due to the presence of PEG, it makes the MGF protein highly sustainable in the body and leads to longer lasting effects.
Several research studies have shown that exogenous administration of MGF helps to recover damaged tissues, muscles and bone cells and repair them at a significantly high rate.
Additionally, MGF also possesses cardioprotective and neuroprotective effects and have shown potential to be used as therapeutic agent in the medical field to treat human ailments. Research continues to date to fully explore the effects of PEG MGF in humans and establish a safe peptide profile for its use in therapeutic fields.
1. Philippou A, Papageorgiou E, Bogdanis G, Halapas A, Sourla A, Maridaki M, Pissimissis N, Koutsilieris M. Expression of IGF-1 isoforms after exercise-induced muscle damage in humans: characterization of the MGF E peptide actions in vitro. In Vivo. 2009 Jul-Aug;23(4):567-75. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/19567392/
2. Zabłocka, B., Goldspink, P. H., Goldspink, G., & Górecki, D. C. (2012). Mechano-Growth Factor: an important cog or a loose screw in the repair machinery? Frontiers in endocrinology, 3, 131. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3485521/
3. Janssen, J. A., Hofland, L. J., Strasburger, C. J., van den Dungen, E. S., & Thevis, M. (2016). Potency of Full-Length MGF to Induce Maximal Activation of the IGF-I R Is Similar to Recombinant Human IGF-I at High Equimolar Concentrations. PloS one, 11(3), e0150453. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4798685/
4. Rotwein P. (2014). Editorial: the fall of mechanogrowth factor?. Molecular endocrinology (Baltimore, Md.), 28(2), 155–156. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3896639/
5. Liu X, Zeng Z, Zhao L, Chen P, Xiao W. Impaired Skeletal Muscle Regeneration Induced by Macrophage Depletion Could Be Partly Ameliorated by MGF Injection. Front Physiol. 2019 May 17;10:601. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31164836/
6. Philippou A, Papageorgiou E, Bogdanis G, Halapas A, Sourla A, Maridaki M, Pissimissis N, Koutsilieris M. Expression of IGF-1 isoforms after exercise-induced muscle damage in humans: characterization of the MGF E peptide actions in vitro. In Vivo. 2009 Jul-Aug;23(4):567-75. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/19567392/
7. Doroudian G, Pinney J, Ayala P, Los T, Desai TA, Russell B. Sustained delivery of MGF peptide from microrods attracts stem cells and reduces apoptosis of myocytes. Biomed Microdevices. 2014 Oct;16(5):705-15. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/24908137/
8. Deng M, Zhang B, Wang K, Liu F, Xiao H, Zhao J, Liu P, Li Y, Lin F, Wang Y. Mechano growth factor E peptide promotes osteoblasts proliferation and bone-defect healing in rabbits. Int Orthop. 2011 Jul;35(7):1099-106. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/21057789/
9. Alec Walker. Hearts and Minds of Mice and Men: Mechano Growth Factor a new tool in the battle against age-related neuron loss? 20 Jul 2017. https://blogs.biomedcentral.com/on-biology/2017/07/20/hearts-minds-mice-men-mechano-growth-factor-new-tool-battle-age-related-neuron-loss/
10. Jing X, Ye Y, Bao Y, Zhang J, Huang J, Wang R, Guo J, Guo F. Mechano-growth factor protects against mechanical overload induced damage and promotes migration of growth plate chondrocytes through RhoA/YAP pathway. Exp Cell Res. 2018 May 15. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29470961/
11. Chen JT, Wang Y, Zhou ZF, Wei KW. [Mechano-growth factor regulated cyclic stretch-induced osteogenic differentiation and MMP-1, MMP-2 expression in human periodontal ligament cells by activating the MEK/ERK1/2 pathway]. Shanghai Kou Qiang Yi Xue. 2019 Feb;28(1):6-12. Chinese. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31080992/
Synonyms/Aliases: PEG MGF, Pegylated MGF, Pegylated Mechano-Growth Factor
NOTE: These products are intended for laboratory research use only. PEG MGF for sale is not intended for personal use. Please review and adhere to our Terms and Conditions before ordering.